Causes of the partition of India:
The partition of India was the most significant event in the history of India. Its chief reason was the antic thinking of the Muslims and their communalism. But the circumstances under which it occurred made it one of the saddest events of the history of India. No doubt, the Hindus and the Muslims were living together since long but they failed to inculcate the feeling of harmony and unity among themselves.
The funatic leaders played a prominent role in stoking the fires of rabid communalism. As a result, the partition of India and formation of Pakistan took place. The following factors contributed to it.
1. Activities of the Muslim League:
The English Govt played a significant role in the formation of Muslim League. The English wanted to create dissensions among the people India in order to consolidate their own position.
The chief aim of the Muslim League was so spread the poison of communalism and the Muslim leaders had their own axe to grind through the medium of this organisation.
In the beginning the Muslim League did not prove to be an influential organisation due to its narrow and negative approach. M. A. Jinnah’s two nation theory was actually a slogan for the formation of a separate nation for the Indian Muslims.
2. Congress’s policy of Appeasement:
No doubt, in the partition of India and making of Pakistan, the policies of the English Govt, and the Muslim League were responsible to a great extent but the policy of appealement of the Muslims, adopted by the congress also proved helpful in this field.
Unfortunately congress did not try to understand the isolationist and aggressive policy of the Muslim and it continued to sustain the false, hope that there might be some miracle by which the communal problem could be averted forever.
The leaders of congress failed to under stand the Muslim character and they continued to commit blunders. In 1916 A.D. of the Lucknow Pact, they accepted the principle of separate franchise for the Muslims and the next blunder was committed by them at the time of accepting the communal electorate system in 1932 A.D.
3. Communal Reaction:
As a result of Muslim communalism, Hindu communalism also came into being. The staunch Hindus formed an organisation. Hindu Maha Sabha and other organisation.
The system of Shuddic which was adopted by the Arya Sainaj created doubt in the minds of the Muslims. Hindu Maha Sabha not only raised a slogan for the establishment of this nation but also blamed the congress for being anti- Hindu organisation. As a result of the Hindu communalism, the Muslim communalism grew all the more powerful and they raised the slogan of a separate nation.
4. Congress policy of strengthening India:
The Congress felt that there was one alternative to get ride of this problem and that was the partition of India
5. Formation of weak Pakistan:
Various leaders of India opined that from political, economic, geographical and military points of view, Pakistan would prove to be a weak nation instead of being a stable one and owing to its own shortcomings; Pakistan could again be incorporated into India. In fact, the unwanted optimism of the Indian leaders also contributed to the making of Pakistan.
6.Divide n rule policy of Britishers.
7.Economic backwardness of Muslim class
7. Development Transfer of power:
The British Prime Minister Attlee declared on 20th Feb. 1947 A.D. that in every condition the English would leave India by June 1948 A.D.
This declaration created a fear in the hearts of the Indian leaders incases, India was not divided by that date, a civil war would breakout and the country divided into various parts. So, the members of the congress accepted the partition proposal because they did not want to annoy Mountbatten nor did they wish to offend the British Government in that any valid reason.
After acceptance of the partition of India by the Muslim League riots broke out in different parts of country. On 20th Feb. 1947 A.D. the British Prime Minister declared that by June 1948 A.D. they would leave Indian by all mean and in the meant time the British drew up the Indian Independence Act of 1947 A.D.